Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Choosing Good Essay on Bank Related Topics

Choosing Good Essay on Bank Related Topics A conclusion is, without a doubt, the most essential portion of the argumentative essay as possible either support the fantastic impression or destroy it entirely. Because of this, you can want to think about a few topics before settling on the one which permits you to be more descriptive and entertaining. One other important element when picking a persuasive speech topic is to select a topic that could provoke your audience a little. Select a particular scenario and go with this. Short sentences have a bigger impact. Also, make sure to check at the word in a sentence to be mindful of the way it relates to other words. It is likewise very important to review words regularly. Select your words carefully. The secret is to choose a stimulating subject that will motivate you to search for more answers and hence you'll have the ability to think of an impressive essay. The important consideration to remember again is that you're not getting marked on the ideas themselves (so long as they answer the question) but the manner in which you present them regarding coherency, cohesion and grammar. Plastic surgery can create an ugly woman a gorgeous lady. Naturally, your explanation of the way to speak, act, and dress will differ for each scenario, and therefore don't attempt to compose an overall essay about making an excellent impression in every scenario. Facts, Fiction and Essay on Bank Related Topics Discrimination Mode' is included to take out the detection of unwanted metals like iron. When you haven't already mastered the process, it'll be tricky to learn and compose all at one time. Keep in mind both of these rules. Presently, a specific share of the nation's production, consumption, exports, imports, and income is determined by the decisions of international organizations or corporations beyond the state. Also, there are numerous sources of globalization that have made a profound effect on the world these days. The trade and commerce have a new life by the creation of huge industrial plants. Moreover, those who oppose globalization consider it like a type of neo-colonialism in the kind of comparative benefit. What's Actually Happening with Essay on Bank Related Topics Banking essays can be real fun to play with if you've got an exhaustive understanding about the discipline and have keen interest in writing, so should you believe that you cannot write decent banking essays than again you're erroneous. Childcare is also quite a marketable skill. Essay writing is a significant portion of the XAT Exam especially because it's conducted together with the most important exam. Writing an essay on globalization isn't an easy task with the plethora of available ideas! Cinematography is additionally a distinctive present of science. If you look at the newest IELTS writing topics, you will observe that most are quite general topics which should be relevant to the majority of countries. If you're reading an English newspaper, search for articles on the usual topics and highlight any excellent vocabulary. These topics may be used as they're written, or else they can be modified to suit the student's individual interests. There's also financing in the emerging international market for a topic for research. Moreover, a suitable Conclusion is needed. Get prepared to answer all these aspects if in the event you get this subject in the XAT Essay. Advantages and pitfalls of e-banking 11.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Challenges, Opportunities. Problems Analysis and Emerging Conflicts - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2475 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Challenges, opportunities. Problems analysis and emerging conflicts: The case studies presented demonstrates several challenges and opportunities. The common ones are summarized in the below table for easy reference prior to elaboration. Common Challenges Opportunities Case I limited resources managing expectations managing change + small institute, potential growth + ability to select suitable track + exposure and qualifications Case II Case III Firstly, the limited resources can be referred at the rightful allocation of resources and the proper distribution of work load and duties among individuals. To illustrate, all three cases show a limited number of faculty members handling various functional tasks, including administrative, educational, researches, et cetera. Secondly, in managing expectations, leaders and managers respectively in each situation have failed to recognize the future aspiration of their staff, while they were mostly concerned in the pursuit of balancing between the needs and the expectations of their institutions. Thirdly, the most significant challenge can be traced to managing change in context. This is a crucial element, since it is a must-have attribute associated with being a leader and or a manager to be able to anticipate future change and being prepared with a contingent plan, as to cope with the unexpected and maintain a smooth and effective operation of the institute. On the other ha nd, opportunities can originate from different areas. To exemplify the cases, the first shows a new small faculty, the second refers to a newly established department, while the last is concerned with new mission. The à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"newà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ situation proposed can therefore be associated with ample of opportunities, such as potential career growth, better income, increased experience and qualifications. Moreover, all the case provide in a way a choice for choosing a suitable track that fit individual goal, provide exposure and possible promotion. It is commonly known that problems occur when a gap exist between a required situation and the actual one, or when expectations have changed. Alternatively, problems often lead to conflicts that emanate from different expectations between individuals. In the first case, the problem occurred as a result of budget cut. This unexpected change, led the Associate Dean to reconsider his plan of recruiting additional faculty mem bers and invest in a fully equipped laboratory to enable researches and development. Subsequently, this change affected directly the junior faculty member, first since work-shedding for some of the tasks performed is no more an option, and by the lack of basic equipment needed to conduct her researches. These fact led to a conflict, since either she would have to compromise and sacrifice her own private time to obtain the promotion she aims or she might lose her job. While in the second case, the problem took place when a faculty member was transferred to a new department and under a less cooperative, less guiding department head. The faculty member had collaborated and contributed to the overall mission of faculty in studies and publications, but her new manager did not recognize her efforts and instead accounted her for what her job description. The conflict aroused when the faculty member was subject to either succumb to pressure of new role or resign from her post. As for the third case, the problem originates as a result of large-scale change in faculty mission, to focus on practice dentistry to generate income and reduce costs. This fact has led to a perception of inequality in compensation between the two teams; tenure tack and clinical track faculty members. Conflicts emerged when tenure members believed that their counterparts would benefit more from this new approach considering that they are limited to one day in practice, while the clinical member complained about the lower base salary and the less flexible hours in comparison. Case studiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ central issues and relevant management concepts: (Word count: 964 without headings) To better comprehend each case, it is essential to analyze and identify the related central issues prior to identifying a management theory that could be applied and or assist for each context Referring to case I à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the frustrated faculty memberà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ , the main issue dwell in managing resources, in particular the human element. Peter Drucker (2004) suggests that effective managers will follow certain practices, such as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"what is right for the enterpriseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢. This fact is visible since both the dean and his associate did their best to get in hold of Dr. Orsten à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" a periodontist, which is considered as scarce resource for the faculty. However, this is not sufficient. An institute that faces shortage in faculty members shall consider effective ways in developing their staff. Many techniques are presented in this regards, including mentoring, motivating and performance counseling. Retrieved from the Journal of Dental Education, Kotter presented certain complementary activities associated with management includes recruiting, allocating resources and coping with complexity. Apparently, the dean and his associate have succeeded in recruiting, but they failed on other counts such as mentor ing. Alternatively, what seems to be a drawback in leadership here, may in fact be related to other factors. Rosemary Stewart (1982) suggested that in certain context, managers effectiveness may reside on key factors, and this case, the constraints imposed on Dr. Hightower by the resource limitations and perhaps the legal regulations pertaining the promotion committee and requirement for tenure, did not leave room for negotiations and forced their behavior that way. This can be confirmed by his sympathy towards to Dr. Orsten and his appreciation to her work performance through the given bonus. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ As for case II à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“the misdirected faculty memberà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  the central issue stems from lack of communication between the Dean and the different departmentsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ Chairs. The lack of discussion and feedback among them may have resulted in an unnoticed conflict. For example, the direction of the deanship towards more rese arches and studies, was not communicated across the board and notably did not obtain feedback from all participants. Instead, they may have used existing skills of some members without considering their future aspirations. Supplemented with further internal re-shuffle of faculty members, both facts have led to a different expectations, and lack of compatibility. Dr. Forester à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" a motivated member, has had to struggle to obtain guidance from the head of the newly established department where she was transferred at. This fact had spilled its impact on de-motivation. Thus, during the process of reengineering tasks between tenure and the clinical, and the changes in faculty bylaws, none have considered the impact for such a change. One way that could have helped the leaders and managers to identify such a conflict, could have been attained trough a proper feedback of all involved and the expectancy theory. The course study materials suggest that when app raising a subordinate, a manager should not only provide feedback, but also consider receiving feedback. Perhaps that what Dr. Marino failed to do, irrespective of whether he had load of other duties. Moreover, the failure to understand the individual and provide a constructive feedback, has meant that the appraisal of Dr. Forester led to a destructive feedback. As a result, Dr. Forester who had high expectations for promotion and motivated by her contribution to the school is now left wondering whether to remain or leave the school. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ As for the case of the faculty stuck in the middle, the fundamental issue is how to address conflicts when dealing with limited resources create a conflict between individuals and different groups of faculty members. To start with, the new direction of the deanship as to focus on income generating centers, that is the clinical practice whereby additional income may be generated, and reducing expenses may sound crystal clear. How ever, this decision as the case implies was neither communicated nor transparently conveyed to all stakeholders , in specific all faculty members regardless of their track. This major flaw in Leadership and management is the source of rift that created the conflicts between the school faculty members. To epitomize, the new strategy proposed stirred up the differences between the tenure and clinical tracks members. On one hand, those in tenure found their counterpart would more benefit from incentives from the practice of dentistry, while themselves are imposed limitations for one day practice. On the other side, the clinical members raised the issue of compensation gap between both tracks, and the less flexible weekly schedule. The perception of unfair practice could have been avoided, if for example the leadership encouraged open communication, being transparent about the reason of change, and encourage all members to discuss freely among them. Instead, they have list ened to each individually. Hence, what appeared to be a positive conflict, that is enabling recruitment of clinical track at low base salary with higher incentives from practice, have resulted in negative conflict by the different perception of inequality that both team have held on each other. Addressing these conflicts after its occurrence, may be harder and perhaps a better way to avoid it was to accommodate it as the case study showed that Dr. Middleman had nothing to offer except to listening- that is accommodating à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" and was forced to deal with non-cooperative team, and a vacant position in his department. In similar situations, literature suggests that dealing with complexity and managing conflicts, require finding a resolution and a compromise. This can be achieved through negotiation. It involves joining people together, agree on a fair solution à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"holding the stick in the middleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, make concessions and achieve compromises on both sides. Action alternatives and proposed recommendations: (word count: 650- without heading) The action alternatives proposed in Case I, an à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"up or outà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ option cannot be the right approach. To justify the statement, we shall consider different assumptions: If Dr. Orsten, unable to cope with responsibilities, did not allocate further time to pursue requirements, demonstrate skills needed for promotion, therefore she would fail to qualify for the tenure, hence forced to go out. Moreover, if Dr. Langley with no intention to continue at the new school, also left upon his contract expiry, the result would be catastrophic. Reason is the shortage of periodontist. A better approach to overcome this negative situation would consider different ways in which the deanship may conserve their human assets. Dr. Hightower could re-negotiate an incentive plan, alleviate and balance teaching tasks. Consequently shreddin g some obligations from the frustrated member. This would enable better time management and allow opting for researches and publications. As a matter of fact, setting direction is the essence of Leadership besides aligning people, motivating and inspiring them. Accordingly, these clues could lead to a favorable situation. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ From what has been advanced in Case II, Dr. Forester is set to work after hours to attain excessive requirements of the new department, obtain a positive performance review and gain a promotion. Giving no options may not be the best solution. Simply because what has worked for Dr. Marino may not work for Dr. Forester, i.e. due to her personal family situation, she might not be able to commit to additional late night working hours. A better approach to tackle the situation, is reconsidering other clinical members who may willingly be interested in this department, and match the traits of Dr. Marino, i.e. sharp with no familial obliga tions. Moreover, exploit Dr. Foresterà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s capabilities and skills that was found useful and needed in restorative department. The focus here will be on keeping all staff motivated, feeling secure and appreciated. One way to measure effectiveness of the Leaders is how well they manage to ensure harmony among their staff while maintaining the direction towards achieving objectives derived from the mission. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ When reviewing case III, addressing limited resources via proposal of recruiting clinical members at lower salary base with higher incentive plan for dentistry practice, may not yield to wishful result. This has created conflicts between different groups. Accordingly, consequences could be catastrophic if a contingency plan is not initiated to contain this rift. An alternative approach is to consider what explicitly was mentioned within case abstract, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"having transparent, open communication and confronta tionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ but under the leadership guidance. Instead of avoidance, the best strategy could be a collaborative approach. By transparently considering the whole package of benefits in front of all concerned, considering all factors such as years of tenure and experiences as well as other benefits openly would help bridging the gap and perhaps reaching agreement on sharing incentives adequately between tracks. In short, the school would need both team to achieve its mission. Subsequently, it needs to address incentive sharing generated by the additional income, then flexibility given to both parties, which would lead to a perception of equality. Furthermore, the committee should include an equal ratio from both sides. Conclusions list with explanation: (word count 310 à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" excluding headings) To manage people requires more than aligning interests of individuals with the faculty expectations. Empathy and financial motivation are not conclusive in d ealing with change. Additionally, changes are part of our daily life and successful leaders shall always consider all possibilities and not be limited to what is set. In fact, the simple scheme of management skill as presented by Robert L. Katz (1986), include a related part of conceptual skills, and involves visualizing the enterprise as a whole. That is considering the relationships between its various parts, understand interdependence of human asset and recognizes that changes in once part impact other parts. Furthermore, when managing a new department implies transferring human resource, it is very essential to understand individualsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ career expectancy, obtain feedback from their previous superior and set a clear direction to them before they move onto their new role. Failing to do so, could result in losing a well performing member, and denying opportunities for those who may be well suited for new positions. In other words, there must be an analysis o f all potential candidates that specifically fit the required job, but not making a transfer without considering consequences that result in negative conflicts among participants, as implied in case II. Finally, in order to manage a limited resource, good leaders shall consider the potential impacts of their proposed solution on all parts of the institute. An ideal change, is a solution that serve the immediate problem and have positive impact on the overall organization. Hence, a solution has to consider the different stakeholders. In other words. not only the interest of the university to be looked at alone, but also the interests of all members including the clinical and tenure track faculty members. Only then, conflicts can be avoided and potential threats from mass exodus can be eradicated, as it was demonstrated in case III. (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦) Reference list: Comer, Robert W. et al (2002) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Leadership Strategies for Department Chairs and Program Dire ctors: A case Study Approachà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Journal of Dental Education, vol. 66, no. 4 Drucker, Peter F. (2004) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"What makes a good executive?à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Harvard Business Review, pp. 58-63 Katz, R. (1986) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å"Skills of an effective administratorà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Harvard Business Review, March/ April, vol. 64, issue 2, p. 198 Kotter, J.P. (1999) à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‹Å" What effective general managers really doà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢, Harvard Business Review, March/ April, vol. 77, issue 2, pp. 145-59. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Challenges, Opportunities. Problems Analysis and Emerging Conflicts" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Net Present Value and Salvage Value - 1144 Words

------------------------------------------------- FINC5001 Capital Market and Corporate Finance ------------------------------------------------- Workshop 5 – Capital Budgeting II 1. Basic Concepts Review a) In applying Net Present Value, what factors do we include, and what factors do we ignore? Use cash flows not accounting income Ignore * sunk costs * financing costs Include * opportunity costs * side effects * working capital * taxation * inflation 2. Practice Questions a) After spending $3 million on research, Better Mousetraps has developed a new trap. The project requires an initial investment in plant and equipment of $6 million. This investment will be depreciated†¦show more content†¦At present the company owns and operates the Black Pearl as its main ship but is considering replacing it with a new ship called the Flying Dutchman, a much larger vessel. The CEO of EITC Ltd, Mr Cutler Beckett, has appointed you to evaluate the proposal for the Board. If the Board decides to go ahead with the project the Black Pearl will be immediately sold and replaced by the Flying Dutchman. The Flying Dutchman would then operate for 5 years. Last year EITC Ltd commissioned the consulting group Swan and Co. to evaluate the potential of the new vessel. This report cost $500,000 and was delivered last month. The finance department of EITC used the findings of that report to provide you with the following information about the two vessels: Black Pearl 1. Original purchase price: $15 million 2. Years since the purchase: 5 years 3. Depreciation rate: 15% per year 4. Salvage value this year: $2 million 5. Salvage value in 5 years: $300,000 6. Revenue each year: $6.5 million 7. Operating costs each year: $4.2 million Flying Dutchman 1. Purchase price this year: $18 million 2. Depreciation rate: 12.5% per year 3. Estimated salvage value in 5 years: $10 million 4. Revenue each year: $10.8 million 5. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Pregnant as a Teenager Essay Example For Students

Pregnant as a Teenager Essay My name is Kathy and I would like to tell you a story of my life and how one night of fun changed it forever. It is a true story of my rough teen years, the choices I made and the consequence I paid because of these choices. First I want to tell you that all these statistics that you see about how nineteen percent of all United States births were to teens, how one million teens become pregnant each year, and more than five hundred and thirty thousand of them do give birth; this my friends is not a lie. I am one of those to statistics as a matter of fact. I am one of those million teens that thought it could never happen to them but later found out that I had thought wrong. When I was eleven years old my parents split and I was highly set off by this. My life went down hill from here. My grades fell, and I began making decisions that I will regret for the rest of my life. When I made it into high school I began exploring myself somewhat and met a guy who I thought I was in love with. Having set sail with the new love I thought I had found little did I know there was an awful storm waiting in my path. Our relationship became physical very quickly and like many teens I had the Itll never happen to me syndrome. We began sleeping around. I was never home. I was either out with my man or hanging out with my friends who were not a good influence on me at all. You are who you hang out with, they say. By the fifth month of our relationship, I was pregnant. My mother and I were both devastated. My boyfriend and I married but by eighteen months time he was gone. After finding out the news of my pregnancy, I had many decisions and responsibilities to make and fulfill. The most important decision I had to make was weather or not I wanted to have this baby. I had never read much about abortion but had a gut feeling that I could not bring myself to take the life of a child. I went to the library and read up on abortion. There were two types of abortion, medical and surgical. Medical abortion is done by taking medications that will end pregnancy, while surgical abortion ends pregnancy by emptying the uterus with special instruments. The more I read about this sad topic the more I told myself that I could not do this to this child or myself. I knew that if I did take this life that I could never live with decision and would regret it for the rest of my life. I was going to go through with it. I will have this baby and love and care for it as best I can. I told myself that it could not be that hard. I knew that teenage mothers were more at risk of pregnancy complications such as premature or prolonged labor, anemia and high blood pressure. The doctor told me that I must eat healthy and that I must refrain from smoking, consuming alcohol or taking drugs, or my baby would be at risk of being born with major health problems. Days went by and it was getting closer to my babies birth date. All I could think about was how uncomfortable I felt and how ugly those stretch marks were gonna be after I got through this pregnancy. She ended up coming two weeks early which scared me because teen babies are pruned to be premature and have a low birth weight. This may have meant that Cassis organs were not fully developed and that she was forty percent less likely to live than a baby with normal weight. This was not the case with my beautiful Cassi. She was born and was, for the most part, healthy. As a mother, school is the only activity I had with my friends. When the last bell rings, I must go straight home to Cassi who stays with my moth er during the school day. One in three teen mothers end up dropping out of high school and if it wasnt for my mother, I may have had to do the same. My friends stand in the hall after the bell rings and discuss their plans for the evening. But I, I had to return to my routine day of going home and sitting with Cassi and watching television, occasionally getting up for a bottle or to change her diaper. Cassi had changed the priorities in my life. My concerns used to be with what I was going to do with my friends, but now when friends drop by spontaneously and talk about going to a football game, I remind them that I have a baby now. I was unable to live the typical life of a junior in high school, unable to play sports, hang out, or just be a teenager. I hear all these kids at school saying that they want a baby of their own. I think to myself they must believe that by having a baby they will either have someone to love them feel they will have a secured type of future, or will get m any financial benefits from the government. Sure you do get many benefits from the government but it is still not worth it. Trying to be an adult before I have been a teenager has been an awakening experience for me. I look older now with stretch marks on my body from the pregnancy. I do love Cassi more than anything in the world, I just wish I had waited until I was married with a complete education before I had her. I n closing I will tell you that I am a living example of a teenagers life that was not fulfilled because of one simple decision. Please know that it can happen to you. Dont be one of the one million teens that got pregnant at an innocent age and threw her childhood away. If you have already become impregnated then please know that you are not alone. I understand your fears and pains. Listen to what your parents and teachers have to say. New life is great but it needs to be with the right person at the right time. Please learn from my mistake. Say no!

Tuesday, April 14, 2020

A Parasite Is Defined As An Organism That Lives In Or On Another Organ

A parasite is defined as an organism that lives in or on another organism, called a host (2). If the parasite has the capacity to cause disease in the host then the parasite is called a pathogen. Disease in the host is caused by the infection of the parasite. The interaction between the host and parasite is complex. Both the pathogen and the host strive for survival in some of the cases. The pathogen divides within or on the host in an attempt to keep its species alive while the host's defense mechanisms simultaneously attempt to eliminate the pathogen. The extent of the battle for survival varies depending on the relationship. This paper discusses the disease state of Chlamydia; how the organism invades its host, evades the host's defense mechanisms, multiplies within the host, and is released from the host. Certain aspects of the chlamydiae will be compared to the other pathogens, Rickettsia and the Herpesviruses as they relate to the disease state. Bacteria are classified into four categories according to shared characteristics, these categories are then divided into groups, and the groups are divided further into subgroups. The ninth group of bacteria contains only two subgroups called the Rickettsias and Chlamydias (1). According to 16S r RNA sequencing Rickettsias are related to the purple Bacteria and Chlamydias comprise a major branch of Bacteria (2). Viruses are not grouped among the prokaryotes. In fact viruses are not really organisms by definition. They are genetic elements that are replicated by host cells. The herpesvirus group contains over seventy viruses all of which are potentially pathogenic. Only five of these viruses infect humans. This group of viruses resemble each other and have biological properties in common, particularly the latency-reactivation stages in the disease state. Before discussing the host-parasite interactions the developmental cycle of chlamydiae need to be mentioned briefly. Chlamydiae alternate between two cell types called elementary bodies and reticulate bodies. The elementary bodies are released from infected host cells and enter uninfected host cells. In the newly infected host cells the elementary bodies transform to reticulate bodies. The reticulate bodies divide in the host cell and then transform themselves into new elementary bodies. The elementary bodies never divide and the reticulate bodies never invade host cells, they are both incapable of doing the other's job. The morphology and metabolisms of viruses are completely different from that of bacteria. The herpes group of viruses consist of a central core, called a nucleoid, containing the viral DNA. The nucleoid is surrounded by a capsid made of tubular protein subunits called capsomeres. The capsid is surrounded by an envelope coated with viral antigens. Other viruses have variations of this morphology. In the sense that chlamydiae change form between infecting and multiplying they can be compared to viruses. Viruses have extracellular and intracellular forms. In the extracellular form the virus is in the form described in the previous paragraph. When the virus infects the host cell it leaves behind its capsid and envelope so that only its nucleic acid enters the host cell. The viral nucleic acid is replicated by host cell machinery. So both chlamydiae and viruses, including the herpesviruses, have an extracellular form that attaches to the host cell and an intracellular form that replicates or is replicated in the host cell. The first step in the host-parasite interaction is the attachment of the parasite to the host cell. Chlamydial cell walls resemble those of gram-negative bacteria except that the chlamydial cell walls lack peptidoglycan. Instead of the peptide cross links in the peptidoglycan layer, disulfide bonds between outer membrane proteins provide rigidity to the wall. Interestingly, rickettsiae also have a gram-negative type of cell wall and they too lack peptidoglycan. The same outer membrane proteins of the chlamydial cell walls have also been reported in the scrub typhus rickettsiae. It has been suggested [by Hatch et al.,(1981) that] negative chlamydial ligands are neutralized by electrostatic interaction with host ligands, thus leading to the binding of chlamydiae to host cells by powerful van der Waals forces (3). It is not yet clear whether chlamydiae enter the host cell by means of microfilament-dependent phagocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis or if both of these pathways are s omehow involved together (3). The major

Thursday, March 12, 2020

The Three Actors Upon Governance †State, Market and Civil society †Government Essay

The Three Actors Upon Governance – State, Market and Civil society – Government Essay Free Online Research Papers The Three Actors Upon Governance State, Market and Civil society Government Essay This essay attempts to offer an explanation and overview of the terms governance, institutions and â€Å"good governance†. Throughout the history the term governance has been associated exclusively to the role of the state ignoring other social factors. Most recent theories offer a very different view of this term, but most stress the relationships between the three actors of governance -state, market and civil society- as necessary requisite to the act of governance. In my understanding governance is the way these actors organise themselves and make decisions according to a set of formal and informal rules that together form institutions. To achieve the perfect governance suggested by the UN is considered an utopia as conflict of interests and failures in the three actor networks arise as regular features of governance making therefore impossible the permanent respect of the Human Rights. Governance and Institutions. 2. 1. Governance. Governance is the process of decision-making which conducts public life in a society and guarantees respect of citizens’ Human Rights, equality in resource distribution and safety. Governance is in charge of the application of the rules of the game which will determine the absence or not of political legitimacy in a country and the population’s quality of life. All actors other than government, the army and the members of the market are put together as part of civil society. In some countries the criminal society has such influence in the decision-making process that may be considered as another actor of governance. Governance is therefore the result of the interactions among state, market and the civil society and function according to a set of rules and norms. Earlier definitions of governance linked this term exclusively to the action of government. Today definitions are wider and cover non-state actors as mentioned before. Rhodes (1997) relates governance with concepts as â€Å"self-organising† and â€Å"interorganisational netwoks†. According to his point of view society is able to organise and govern itself independently of the state and through a process that can be defined as symbiotic as all the members of society need to each other to achieve their aims. The social interactions which result from this exchange process are regulated by a set of rules and how they are applied will determine the level of democracy in societies. This autonomy from the state is the result of concepts such as decentralisation and privatisation of the public services that have transformed present societies. In the words of Rhodes (1997) â€Å"no single actor, public or private, has the sufficient knowledge to dominate ultimately a governing model†. Governance is the result of a social-political-administrative sharing process where state, market and civil society have their own role. The state does not have any more a central role. 2.2. The role of Institutions. So far governance has been described as the way state, market and civil society interact according to a set of norms and rules known as institutions. These are in charge of providing the instruments which make possible such interaction. According to Gorringe (1997) institutions are created as a result of the necessity of improving the co-ordination among the different members of a society, preventing conflicts of interests and supporting cooperativism. A society without institutions or rules of the game would be an anarchist society where lack of organisation may lead to chaos. Two different degrees of formality can be identified within the rules: formal norms (those based on written constitutions, laws, formal contracts, etc.) and informal norms (based on moral rules, unwritten societal codes of conduct, etc). Informal norms have more importance in developing countries for social administration and poverty alleviation given that generally formal institutions are very limited and do not have the necessary structure to carry out its tasks properly (Jutting, 2003). One of the most significant problems that formal and informal rules have to cope with is to find the way to evolve at the same rate. Sometimes the application of formal norms are against the beliefs or established moral norms of a certain society. An example can be taken from China when during the 70’s the state, trying to control the population growth, decided to impose fines to those families that did not respect the limit established in the region on the number of children per family. Th is new norm was imposed in a society where having large families was a very old tradition and has very positive connotations. The scope of work of institutions is very wide and cover all the economic and social aspects of the individual as personal security, property rights, resource distribution, level of freedom, education, etc. The application of the rules of the game needs the pre-condition of the society acceptance of such norms and of the democratic process. However, in reality the people who design these rules and who finally apply them through the governance actions are normally a small part of the society in clear advantage respect the rest of the society members. Therefore they have the chance to shape society according to their own interests. Thus depending on their actions cases of tyranny or societies living in most absolute liberty can be found (Crukshank,1999). 3. Good governance. The concept of â€Å"good governance† has had a lot of different interpretations along the history. At the present moment the most common approaches are those based on the interactions among state, market and civil society. The differences arise when defining how these relationships should make â€Å"good governance† possible. An example of it is showed by Cruikshank (1999) through the different views of two North American authors from the 60’s (Huntington and Wolin) about the interactions between state and civil society and its influence on governance. Whereas the former thinks that the role of the state is in danger when the civil society intervention increases in the political scene – â€Å"too democracy and participation†- the latter, by contrast, sees the danger in limiting the participation of the citizens in the public-political life. Thought the two authors disagree about how governance should be, both of them stress â€Å"an overflow of politics out of the realm of the state and into the realm of the social† (Cruikshank,1999). It is widely thought that a necessary condition for â€Å"good governance† is that the interactions among government, market and civil society should occur under the framework of democracy and the respect of the Human Rights (civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights) as it is described by the United Nation in its Resolution 2000, 64 (UN High Commission for Human Rights). Democracy is not just understood as the citizens chance to participate in the electoral system but it also involves a pluralist political and social system, the integrity of the three governance actors, the legitimacy of the decision-making process and the opportunity for public scrutiny of the actions of those who holds the power (Archer, 2003). Under this framework â€Å"good governance† involves that all members of a society should therefore enjoy safety –against internal and external threats- and freedom to act and express themselves irrespective of their sex, ideology, race or religion. Also they should have equal access to a welfare system covering all their basic needs and providing them with a decent quality of life – not just at subsistence levels-. This â€Å"ideal† model of governance is according to the UN only possible if it takes place under the umbrella of transparency, equity participation of citizens in the decision making process, consensus among all parts involved seeking the best common interests, following of the rule of law, responsiveness to serve all the society members, accountability to the public and institutions and effectiveness and efficiency to meet the society’s needs and protecting the environment (UN ESCAP). In this utopian model of governance every actor has a task to undertake. Thus, the market should create the necessary conditions for fair trade and competitiviness, as well as to maintain the balance between private and public companies to make sure that everybody has the same chances to access to goods and services. According to Archer (2003) the state should be in charge of financial control, good and long-term planning (in economy, infrastructure people,), to provide an equal welfa re and education system and to offer a judicial system which upholds the law without bias. Finally civil society’s should promote co-operativism to eliminate powerful interest bias and to claim political and economic accountability to maintain social equality. But why has no country in the world achieved total â€Å"good governance† if they have the theory and knowledge to do so? The main answer is the existence of conflicts of interests in the decision-making process that make impossible to apply concepts as transparency or consensus and the consistent failure in the respect of the Human Rights leading to situations of inequality among the society’s members. Sometimes is civil society who build barriers to â€Å"good governance† trying to take advantage of the democratic system. An example can be seen in Spain through the continuos outrages committed by the terrorist group ETA against the rest of the Spanish population and the government. They use the arms and threat to impose their rules in a region of the country ideologically divided (Vasc Country). With their actions this group break down the natural interaction which should take place between civil society and state. Also break the consensus between citizens in their claim for a better society. Another factor that could represent a barrier to the model of â€Å"good governance† is that the failure in the functioning of one of the three actors may affect the success of the other two members. For instance, in the case of the market a set of reasons related to lack of effectiveness in the social and government context can lead to market failure. Situations of inequality and conflict of interests can be seen when the state benefits -with reduced taxes, privileged access to capital, guaranteed markets, etc- some companies more than others. The lack of a good education system results in gap knowledge in technology and a consequent poor competitiveness. Finally, an ineffective rule of law could be cause of conflicts, different forms of abuse and the detriment of investments as companies ask for transparent policies to reduce financial risks. In the international sphere Stiglitz (2002) explains a case of unfair trade and political power between US and Bolivia. This was widely discussed in one of the most recent Uruguay Round of trade negotiations as the South American country opened its barriers to allow US to control the traffic of cocaine and was almost eradicated the growth of this in the country -even being the only income of many Bolivian citizens. However, US responded keeping its barriers closed to agricultural products that Bolivian farmers might export. Thus, US used its economic and political power to get better benefits for itself and did not fairly respond to the efforts of Bolivia. Thus, â€Å"good governance† is not possible in developing countries when they are in economic and political disadvantage respect to rich countries. Archer (2003) concludes that â€Å"good governance thesis highlight the fact that there is an overlap between business interests and Human Rights. 4. Conclusion. The UN Commission for Human Right offers a very sensible definition of â€Å"good governance† based on the necessity of the respect of the people’s civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Also gives to the three actors of governance the instructions about how they should achieve a more fair society. But the problem is that even having the instruments and the knowledge to do so too many different interests have to be put in common, which is an utopia in a world where advantage sectors take benefits of the differences of power within societies. A society cannot develop properly without the proper functioning of its formal and informal institutions that at the same time have to be designed and applied according to the needs and beliefs of the citizens, not trying to satisfy just the privileged minorities that dominate the interactions among state, market and civil society. The aim of those who holds the power spheres should be to seek equilibrium among the three actors of governance while applying the rules of the game and the maintenance of a democratic network system. To find the right balance is difficult and although some countries get very close to it there is no society in the world which achieved a total â€Å"good governance†. References. Archer, R. (2003). United Nations. Non-Governamental Liason Service. Development dossiers. Market and good governance. unsystem.org/ngls/documents/publications .en/develop.dossier/dd.01/01.htm#02 Viewed February 2004. Cruikshank, B. (1999). The will to empower. Democratic citizens and other subjects. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Gorringe, P. (1997). The State and Institutions. The Treasury Wellington New Zealand. www.treasury.govt.nz/gorringe/papers/gp-1997.pdf (Viewed February 2004). Jutting, J. (2003). Institutions and Development: A critical review. OECD. Development Centre. DEV/DOC (2003) 08. Technical papers. No 210. Pgs. 11-12. www.oecd.org.dev/Technics (Viewed February 2004) Rhodes, R. A. W. (1997). Understanding governance. Policy networks, governance, reflexibility and accountability. Buckingham and Philadelphia: Open University Press. Stiglitz, J. (2002). Globalization and its discontents. London and New York: Allen Lane. The Pinguin Press. United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). www.unescap.org/huset/gg/governance .htm (Viwed February 2004). United Nation Office of the High Commission for Human Rights. Human Rights and Development. unhchr.ch/development/governance-01.html (Viewed February 2004) Research Papers on The Three Actors Upon Governance - State, Market and Civil society - Government EssayBringing Democracy to AfricaPETSTEL analysis of IndiaRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andQuebec and Canada19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraCapital PunishmentEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite ReligionArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)Comparison: Letter from Birmingham and Crito

Monday, February 24, 2020

Election Commerical Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Election Commerical - Research Paper Example The narrator repeats the words â€Å"strength†, â€Å"restraint†, and â€Å"leadership† as he introduces Reagan to the viewers, and juxtaposes Reagan with President Carter in order to show a contrast in their policies. â€Å"Peace is lost when such strength disappears,† says Reagan, as he goes on to describe his perspective on negotiating with the Soviet Union, and finally claims that â€Å"hope, confidence, and facts† are at the heart of his strategy. â€Å"The time is now,† concludes the narrator. â€Å"Reagan for president.† The feeling the video gives is split. In the opening sequence, it shows images of worrying foreigners, while the narrator speaks ominously over the droning of an air raid siren. The viewer comes to feel a sense of concern as the narrator repeats the word â€Å"slowly† while naming off conflicts that the US has been involved in, starting with Korea. It then shifts focus, using a condemning tone while menti oned countries where Carter’s foreign policy has be ineffective—â€Å"Angola, Ethiopia, and Afghanistan.† This shift in focus does not outwardly suggest that Carter is to blame for the Iranian hostage crisis, nor that he will lead the US into another war. However, it surely invites the viewer to make that connection based on the flow from describing future risks to the current leader’s shortcomings. The video then transitions into a scene of Ronald Reagan giving a speech, then a television interview. This is where the mood splits, and suddenly the video presents confidence and reassurance, indicating that Reagan is the man with the answers to the problems that Carter presents. The Reagan half uses live quotations and conveys future hope and strategies, focusing on Reagan as the answer. The context of this video is a chaotic political environment, where President Jimmy Carter, the incumbent, was mired in the details and faced with a critical opponent who w as quite aware of all his faults. Ronald Reagan was the two-term governor of California and former actor who faced-off against Carter in 1980. He had a fiscal reputation that would give him great appeal during the inflation problems of the time, but also used his charisma as an actor to be a confident, strong, and effective speaker who could engage listeners and convey his messages with success. While the economic issues were forefront in this election, and his plans for dealing with them well-developed, the Iranian-hostage crisis unexpectedly dominated public opinion as 53 Americans were held in captivity over the course of a year in the American embassy in Teheran. Possibly increasing the strength of his ballot, Reagan selected UN Ambassador George H.W. Bush as his running mate, and the focus of the race shifted greatly to what the Reagan-Bush ticket could do for America’s relations abroad. What was most important in 1980 was indeed US foreign policy, and this is the primar y area where Carter experienced stress and criticism. Carter’s approach to foreign policy was humble and restrained, which may have been perceived as weak by some. This perception of weakness increased during the Iranian hostage crisis. Carter staged a failed rescue attempt of Americans held hostage in Teheran in April of 1980, and as a result, Americans at home grew frustrated. Elizabeth drew is quoted in a description of the political atmosphere as saying "Fairly or not, [the hostage crisis] came to symbolize the question of whether Carter was a leader, whether he was competent, whether he was strong." The issue of who could keep the peace and who was likely to let it slip away caused the election to be very close by October 1980 (Jimmy). The Iranian hostage crisis led to a severing of relations between the United States and the newly formed Islamic Republic of